Target Level: Investigate and predict the change in motion of objects based on the forces acting on those objects.
Precursor Level: Investigate and identify ways to change the motion of an object (e.g., change an incline's slope to make an object go slower, faster, farther).
Initial Level: Identify ways to change the movement of an object (e.g., faster, slower, stop).
Force and Motion
Force and motion are fundamental to all matter in the universe and are integral parts of our daily lives. A force is a push or a pull on an object that is caused by an interaction with another object. Forces influence objects that are at rest or that are already in motion. Isaac Newton's three laws of motion describe how forces interact with objects to influence motion. These laws involve inertia, mass, velocity, and momentum. Key forces include gravity, friction, and magnetism. A force is required to do work, and generating a force requires energy. Energy can be stored as potential energy, or it can have kinetic energy—the energy of motion. Energy can also be converted and exchanged through energy transfer.